3470 BP - Debt Issuance And Management

Business and Noninstructional Operations BP 3470
Policy Adopted: Nov. 2, 2023

Debt Issuance And Management

The Governing Board is committed to long-term capital and financial planning and recognizes that the issuance of debt is a key source for funding the improvement and maintenance of school facilities and managing cash flow. Any debt issued by the district shall be consistent with law and this policy.

The district shall not enter into indebtedness or liability that in any year exceeds the income and revenue provided for such year, unless two-thirds of the voters approve the obligation or one of the exceptions specified in law applies. (California Constitution, Article 16, Section 18)

When the Board determines that it is in the best interest of the district, the Board may issue debt or order an election to issue debt. The Superintendent or designee shall make recommendations to the Board regarding appropriate financing methods for capital projects or other projects that are authorized purposes for debt issuance. When
approved by the Board and/or the voters as applicable, the Superintendent or designee shall administer and coordinate the district's debt issuance program and activities, including the timing of issuance, sizing of issuance,
method of sale, structuring of the issue, and marketing strategies.

The Superintendent or designee shall retain a financial advisor, municipal advisor, investment advisor, and other financial services professionals as needed to assist with the structuring of the debt issuance and to provide general advice on the district's debt management program, financing options, investments, and compliance with legal requirements. Contracts for services provided by such advisors may be for a single transaction or for multiple transactions, consistent with the contracting requirements in Education Code 17596. In the event that the district issues debt through a negotiated sale, underwriters may be selected for multiple transactions if multiple issuances are planned for the same project. In addition, the district shall select a legal team on an as-needed basis to assist with debt
issuances or special projects.


The district's debt issuance activities and procedures shall be aligned with the district's vision and goals for providing adequate facilities and programs that support student learning and well-being. When issuing debt, the district shall ensure that it:

1. Maintains accountability for the fiscal health of the district, including prudent management and transparency of the district's financing programs

2. Attains the best possible credit rating for each debt issue in order to reduce interest costs, within the context of preserving financial flexibility and meeting capital funding requirements

3. Takes all practical precautions and proactive measures to avoid any financial decision that will negatively impact current credit ratings on existing or future debt issues

4. Maintains effective communication with rating agencies and, as appropriate, credit enhancers such as bond insurers or other providers of credit or liquidity instruments in order to enhance the creditworthiness,
liquidity, or marketability of the debt

5. Monitors the district's statutory debt limit in relation to assessed valuation within the district and the tax burden needed to meet long-term debt service requirements

6. When determining the timing of debt issuance, considers market conditions, cash flows associated with repayment, and the district's ability to expend the obtained funds in a timely, efficient, and economical
manner consistent with federal tax laws

7. Determines the amortization (maturity) schedule which will fit best within the overall debt structure of the district at the time the new debt is issued

8. Considers the useful lives of assets funded by the debt issue, as well as repair and replacement costs of those assets to be incurred in the future

9. Preserves the availability of the district's general fund for operating purposes and other purposes that cannot
be funded by the issuance of voter-approved debt

10. Meets the ongoing obligations and accountability requirements associated with the issuance and management of debt under state and federal tax and securities laws

Authorized Purposes for the Issuance of Debt

The district may issue debt for any of the following purposes:
1. To pay for the cost of capital improvements, including acquiring, constructing, reconstructing, rehabilitating, replacing, improving, extending, enlarging, and/or equipping district facilities

2. To refund existing debt

3. To provide for cash flow needs

Pursuant to Government Code 53854, general operating costs, including, but not limited to, items normally funded in the district's annual operating budget, shall not be financed from debt payable later than 15 months from the date of issuance. The district may deem it desirable to finance cash flow requirements under certain conditions so that available resources better match expenditures within a given fiscal year. To satisfy both state constitutional and statutory constraints, such cash flow borrowing shall be payable from taxes, income, revenue, cash receipts, and other moneys attributable to the fiscal year in which the debt is issued.

Authorized Types of Debt

The Superintendent or designee shall recommend to the Board potential financing method(s) that result in the highest benefit to the district, with the cost of staff and consultants considered. Potential financing sources may include:

1. Short-Term Debt
a. Short-term debt, such as tax and revenue anticipation notes (TRANs), when necessary to allow the district to meet its cash flow requirements (Government Code 53850-53858)
b. Bond anticipation notes (BANs) to provide interim financing for capital bond projects that will
ultimately be paid from general obligation bonds (Education Code 15150)
c. Grant anticipation notes (GANs) to provide interim financing pending the receipt of grants and/or loans from the state or federal government that have been appropriated and committed to the district
(Government Code 53859-53859.08)

2. Long-Term Debt
a. General obligation bonds for projects approved by voters (California Constitution, Article 13A, Section 1; Education Code 15100-15262, 15264-15276; Government Code 53506-53509.5)
b. Special tax bonds issued pursuant to the Mello-Roos Community Facilities Act of 1982 (Government Code 53311-53368.3)

3. Lease financing, including certificates of participation (COPs)
a. Lease financing to fund the highest priority capital equipment purchases when pay-as-you-go financing is not feasible (Education Code 17450-17453.1)
b. Lease financing to fund facilities projects when there is insufficient time to obtain voter approval or in instances where obtaining voter approval is either not feasible or unavailable (Education Code 17400-17429)

4. Special financing programs or structures offered by the federal or state government, such as Qualified Zone Academy Bonds or other tax credit obligations or obligations that provide subsidized interest payments,
when the use of such programs or structures is determined to result in sufficiently lower financing costs compared to traditional tax-exempt bonds and/or COPs

5. Temporary borrowing from other sources such as the County Treasurer
COPs, TRANs, revenue bonds, or any other non-voter approved debt instrument shall not be issued by the district in any fiscal year in which the district has a qualified or negative certification, unless the County Superintendent of Schools determines, pursuant to criteria established by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, that the district's
repayment of that indebtedness is probable. (Education Code 42133)

Relationship of Debt to District Facilities Program and Budget

Decisions regarding the issuance of debt for the purpose of financing capital improvement shall be aligned with current needs for acquisition, development, and/or improvement of district property and facilities as identified in the district's facilities master plan or other applicable needs assessment, the projected costs of those needs, schedules for
the projects, and the expected resources.

The cost of debt issued for major capital repairs or replacements shall be evaluated against the potential cost of delaying such repairs and/or replacing such facilities. When considering a debt issuance, the Board and the Superintendent or designee shall evaluate both the short-term
and long-term implications of the debt issuance and additional operating costs associated with the new project  involved. Such evaluation may include, but is not limited to, the projected ratio of annual debt service to the tax burden on the district's taxpayers and the ratio of annual debt service secured by the general fund to general fund expenditures.

The district may enter into credit enhancement agreements such as municipal bond insurance, surety bonds, letters of credit, and lines of credit with commercial banks, municipal bond insurance companies, or other financial entities when their use is judged to lower borrowing costs, eliminate restrictive covenants, or have a net economic benefit to
the financing.

Structure of Debt Issues

The district shall consider the overall impact of the current and future debt burden of the financing when determining the duration of the debt issue.

The district shall design the financing schedule and repayment of debt so as to take best advantage of market conditions, ensure cost effectiveness, provide flexibility, and, as practical, recapture or maximize its debt capacity for future use. Principal amortization will be structured to meet debt repayment, tax rate, and flexibility goals.

For new money debt issuances for capital improvements, the district shall size the debt issuance with the aim of funding capital projects as deemed appropriate by the Board, as long as the issuance is consistent with the overall financing plan, does not exceed the amount authorized by voters, and, unless a waiver is sought and received from the state, will not cause the district to exceed the limitation on debt issuances specified in the California Constitution or Education Code 15106.

To the extent practicable, the district shall also consider credit issues, market factors, and tax law when sizing the district's bond issuance. The sizing of refunding bonds shall be determined by the amount of money that will be required to cover the principal of, any accrued interest on, and any redemption premium for the debt to be paid on the call date and to cover appropriate financing costs.

Any general obligation bond issued by the district shall mature within 40 years of the issuance date or as otherwise required by law. (California Constitution, Article 16, Section 18; Government Code 53508.6)

The final maturity of equipment or real property lease obligations will be limited to the useful life of the assets to be financed but, with respect to a lease purchase of equipment, no longer than a period of 10 years. (Education Code 17452)

Method of Sale

For the sale of any district-issued debt, the Superintendent or designee shall recommend the method of sale with the potential to achieve the lowest financing cost and/or to generate other benefits to the district. Potential methods of sale include:

1. A competitive bidding process through which the award is based on, among other factors, the lowest offered true interest cost
2. Negotiated sale, subject to approval by the district to ensure that interest costs are in accordance with comparable market interest rates
3. Private placement sale, when the financing can or must be structured for a single or limited number of purchasers or where the terms of the private placement are more beneficial to the district than either a negotiated or competitive sale

Investment of Proceeds

The district shall actively manage the proceeds of debt issued for public purposes in a manner that is consistent with state law governing the investment of public funds and with the permitted securities covenants of related financing documents executed by the district. Where applicable, the district's official investment policy and legal documents for a particular debt issuance shall govern specific methods of investment of bond-related proceeds. Preservation of principal shall be the primary goal of any investment strategy, followed by the availability of funds and then by return on investment.

With regard to general obligation bonds, the district shall invest new money bond proceeds in the county treasury pool as required by law. (Education Code 15146)

The management of public funds shall enable the district to respond to changes in markets or changes in payment or construction schedules so as to ensure liquidity and minimize risk.


The district may consider refunding or restructuring outstanding debt if it will be financially advantageous or beneficial for debt repayment and/or structuring flexibility. When doing so, the district shall consider the maximization of the district's expected net savings over the life of the debt issuance and, when using a general obligation bond to refund an existing bond, shall ensure that the final maturity of the refunding bond is no longer than the final maturity of the existing bond.

Internal Controls

The Superintendent or designee shall establish internal control procedures to ensure that the proceeds of any debt issuance are directed to the intended use. Such procedures shall assist the district in maintaining the effectiveness and efficiency of operations, properly expending funds, reliably reporting debt incurred by the district and the use of the proceeds, complying with all laws and regulations, preventing fraud, and avoiding conflict of interest.

The district shall be vigilant in using bond proceeds in accordance with the stated purposes at the time such debt was incurred as defined in the text of the voter-approved bond measure. (Government Code 53410)

When feasible, the district shall issue debt with a defined revenue source in order to preserve the use of the general fund for general operating purposes.

The district shall annually conduct a due diligence review to ensure its compliance with all ongoing obligations applicable to issuers of debt. Such a review may be conducted by general legal counsel or bond counsel. Any district personnel involved in conducting such reviews shall receive periodic training regarding their responsibilities.

In addition, the Superintendent or designee shall ensure that the district completes, as applicable, all performance and financial audits that may be required for any debt issued by the district, including disclosure requirements applicable to a particular transaction.


At least 30 days prior to the sale of any debt issue, the Superintendent or designee shall submit a report of the proposed issuance to the California Debt and Investment Advisory Commission (CDIAC). Such report shall include a self-certification that the district has adopted a policy concerning the use of debt that complies with law and that the contemplated debt issuance is consistent with that policy. (Government Code 8855)

On or before January 31 of each year, the Superintendent or designee shall submit a report to the CDIAC regarding the debt authorized, the debt outstanding, and the use of proceeds of the issued debt for the period from July 1 to June 30. (Government Code 8855)

The Superintendent or designee shall provide initial and any annual or ongoing disclosures required by 17 CFR 240.10b-5 and 240.15c2-12 to the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board, investors, and other persons or entities entitled to disclosure, and shall ensure that the district's disclosure filings are updated as needed.

The Superintendent or designee shall maintain transaction records of decisions made in connection with each debt issuance, including the selection of members of the financing team, the structuring of the financing, selection of credit enhancement products and providers, and selection of investment products. Each transaction file shall include the official transcript for the financing, interest rates and cost of issuance on the day when the debt was sold ("final number runs"), and a post-pricing summary of the debt issue. In addition, documentation evidencing the expenditure of proceeds, the use of debt-financed property by public and private entities, all sources of payment or security for the debt, and investment of proceeds shall be kept for as long as the debt is outstanding, plus the period ending three years after the financial payment date of the debt or the final payment date of any obligations or series of bond issued to refund directly or indirectly all of any portion of the debt, whichever is later.

The Superintendent or designee shall annually report to the Board regarding debts issued by the district, including information on actual and projected tax rates, an analysis of bonding capacity, ratings on the district's bonds, market update and refunding opportunities, new development for California bond financings, and the district's compliance with post-issuance requirements.

State Code
CA Constitution Article 13A, Section 1 Tax limitation
CA Constitution Article 16, Section 18 Debt limit
Education Code
Ed. Code 15100-15262 Bonds for school districts and community college districts
Ed. Code 15264-15276 Strict accountability in local school construction bonds
Ed. Code 15278-15288 Citizen's oversight committees

Ed. Code 15300-15425 School facilities improvement districts
Ed. Code 17150 Public disclosure of non-voter-approved debt
Ed. Code 17400-17429 Leasing of school buildings
Ed. Code 17450-17453.1 Leasing of equipment
Ed. Code 17456 Sale or lease of district property
Ed. Code 17596 Limit on continuing contracts
Ed. Code 42130-42134 Financial reports and certifications
Ed. Code 5300-5441 Conduct of elections
Elec. Code 1000 Established election dates

Government Code
Gov. Code 53311-53368.3 Mello-Roos Community Facilities Act of 1982
Gov. Code 53410-53411 Bond reporting
Gov. Code 53506-53509.5 General obligation bonds
Gov. Code 53550-53569 Refunding bonds of local agencies
Gov. Code 53580-53595.55 Bonds
Gov. Code 53850-53858 Tax and revenue anticipation notes
Gov. Code 53859-53859.08 Grant anticipation notes
Gov. Code 8855 California Debt and Investment Advisory Commission
Federal Code

15 USC 78o-4 Registration of municipal securities dealers
17 CFR 240.10b-5 Prohibition against fraud or deceit
17 CFR 240.15c2-12 Municipal securities disclosure
26 CFR 1.6001-1 Records
26 USC 54E Qualified Zone Academy Bonds
Management Resources
CDIAC Publication California Debt Issuance Primer
Gov. Finance Officers Association Publication Analyzing and Issuing Refunding Bonds, Best Practice, February 2011

Gov. Finance Officers Association Publication Debt Management Policy, Best Practice, October 2012
Gov. Finance Officers Association Publication Investment of Bond Proceeds, Best Practice, September 2014
Business and Noninstructional Operations BP 3470

Gov. Finance Officers Association Publication Selecting and Managing Municipal Advisors, Best Practice, February
Gov. Finance Officers Association Publication An Elected Official's Guide to Debt Issuance, 2nd Ed., 2016
Gov. Finance Officers Association Publication Understanding Your Continuing Disclosure Responsibilities, Best
Practice, September 2015
Internal Revenue Service Publication Tax Exempt Bond FAQs Regarding
Record Retention Requirements
Internal Revenue Service Publication Tax-Exempt Governmental Bonds, Publication 4079, rev. 2016
U.S. Government Accountability Publication Internal Control System Checklist
Website CSBA District and County Office of Education Legal Services
Website U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
Website U.S. Government Accountability Office
Website Municipal Security Rulemaking Board, Electronic Municipal Market Access (EMMA)
Website California Debt and Investment Advisory Commission
Website Government Finance Officers Association
Website Internal Revenue Service
Cross References
0000 Vision
0200 Goals For The School District
3000 Concepts And Roles

3100 Budget
3100 Budget
3110 Transfer Of Funds
3312 Contracts
3314 Payment For Goods And Services
3314 Payment For Goods And Services
3400 Management Of District Assets/Accounts
3400 Management Of District Assets/Accounts
3430 Investing
3430 Investing
3460 Financial Reports And Accountability
3460 Financial Reports And Accountability
3600 Consultants
5142.2 Safe Routes To School Program
5142.2 Safe Routes To School Program
7000 Concepts And Roles
7110 Facilities Master Plan
7210 Facilities Financing
7212 Mello-Roos Districts
7214 General Obligation Bonds
7214 General Obligation Bonds
9270 Conflict Of Interest
9270-E(1) Conflict Of Interest
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